Cardiology

Cardiology is a medical speciality that deals with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases related to the heart and blood vessels. Cardiologists use a variety of treatment methods to manage heart-related diseases, including medication, lifestyle changes and surgical interventions.

Cardiology

Cardiology is a medical speciality that deals with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases related to the heart and blood vessels. Cardiologists use a variety of treatment modalities to manage heart-related diseases, including medication, lifestyle changes and surgical interventions. In this article, we will discuss in detail the surgical treatments performed by the cardiology speciality.

1. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat severe blockages in the coronary arteries. In this procedure, the surgeon creates a new way for blood to flow to the heart using a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body. The healthy blood vessel is typically taken from the leg or chest wall and then connected to the coronary artery beyond the blockage. This allows blood to bypass the blocked area and reach the heart muscle.

CABG is usually recommended for people who have severe blockages in more than one coronary artery or who have not responded well to other treatments such as medication or lifestyle changes. The procedure is usually performed under general anaesthesia and requires hospitalisation for several days.

2. Valve Repair or Replacement

Valve repair or replacement is a surgical procedure used to treat damaged or diseased heart valves. The heart has four valves that regulate blood flow through the heart chambers. Over time, these valves can become damaged for various reasons, such as infections, congenital defects or ageing. This can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue and chest pain.

In valve repair, the surgeon tries to repair the damaged valve by trimming, reshaping or patching it. If the valve is severely damaged, it may need to be replaced. In this procedure, the surgeon removes the damaged valve and replaces it with an artificial valve made of metal or biological material.

Valve repair or replacement is typically performed under general anaesthesia and requires hospitalisation for several days.

3. Pacemaker Implantation

A pacemaker is a small device placed under the skin of the chest to regulate the heartbeat. It is often used to treat conditions such as bradycardia (slow heartbeat) or heart block, where the electrical signals that control the heart’s rhythm are disrupted.

In pacemaker implantation, the surgeon makes a small incision in the chest and passes one or more leads (wires) through a vein into the heart. The wires are then connected to the pacemaker, which is placed under the skin of the chest. The pacemaker monitors the heart’s rhythm and sends electrical signals to the heart to regulate its beating.

Pacemaker implantation is usually performed under local anaesthesia and requires a short hospital stay. The patient may need to avoid certain activities such as heavy lifting or contact sports for several weeks after the procedure.

4. Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) Implantation

An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a device placed under the skin of the chest to monitor the heart’s rhythm and deliver an electric shock if necessary to restore a normal heartbeat. It is often used to treat conditions such as ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, which can cause sudden cardiac arrest.

In ICD implantation, the surgeon makes a small incision in the chest and passes one or more leads (wires) through a vein into the heart. The wires are then connected to the ICD, which is placed under the skin of the chest. The ICD monitors the heart’s rhythm and delivers electric shocks if needed to restore a normal heartbeat.

ICD implantation is usually performed under local anaesthetic and requires a short hospital stay. The patient may need to avoid certain activities such as heavy lifting

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